DNS - Basics
Imagine that you are trying to visit www.enterprise.com, but
you don't remember the IP address the web-server is running on.
Assume the following records are on the TLD DNS server:
- (www.enterprise.com, dns.enterprise.com, NS)
- (dns.enterprise.com, 22.214.171.124, A)
- (www.enterprise.com, west4.enterprise.com, CNAME)
- (west4.enterprise.com, 126.96.36.199, A)
- (www.enterprise.com, mail.enterprise.com, MX)
- (mail.enterprise.com, 247.29.31.63, A)
Assume your local DNS server only has the TLD DNS server cached.
1. What transport protocol(s) does DNS use: TCP, UDP, or Both?
2. What well-known port does DNS use?
3. How many types of Resource Records (RR) are there?
4. Can you send multiple DNS questions and get multiple RR answers in one message? Answer with Yes or No
5. To which DNS server does a host send their requests to? Answer with the full name
6. Which type of DNS server holds a company's DNS records? Answer with the full name
7. In the example given in the problem, what is the address of the DNS server for enterprise.com?
8. When you make the request for www.enterprise.com, your local DNS requests the IP on your behalf. When it contacts the TLD server, how many answers (RR) are returned?
9. In the previous question, there were two responses, one was a NS record and the other an A record. What was the content of the A record? Answer with the format: "name, value"
10. Assume that the enterprise.com website is actually hosted on west4.enterprise.com, what type of record is needed for this?
11. Now imagine we are trying to send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org, and their mail server has the address mail.enterprise.com. What type of record will we receive?
12. In that MX record, what are the contents? Answer with the format: "name, value"
13. Does your local DNS server take advantage of caching similar to web requests? Answer with Yes or No
1. DNS generally uses UDP, but in some cases (such as zone transfer) it will use TCP, so the answer is: Both.
2. DNS uses well-known port 53.
3. There are 4 types of RR's: A, CNAME, NS, and MX.
4. Yes, there can be multiple 'questions' and 'answers' in a single DNS request.
5. The host first contacts the Local DNS server, which acts on behalf of the host.
6. The company's Authoritative DNS server is where their RR are stored.
7. The Authoritative DNS server for www.enterprise.com is dns.enterprise.com
8. There are 2 records returned; a NS record, and an A record for the DNS server.
9. The A record has contents: (dns.enterprise.com, 188.8.131.52)
10. In this case, a CNAME record is needed.
11. An MX record will be returned.
12. The MX record has contents: (mail.enterprise.com, 247.29.31.63)
13. Yes, DNS servers (especially your Local DNS server) cache records for faster retrieval.
The answer was: Both
The answer was: 53
The answer was: 4
The answer was: Yes
The answer was: Local DNS server
The answer was: Authoritative DNS server
The answer was: dns.enterprise.com
The answer was: 2
The answer was: dns.enterprise.com, 184.108.40.206
The answer was: CNAME
The answer was: MX
The answer was: mail.enterprise.com, 247.29.31.63
The answer was: Yes